White Smoke Coming out of Boiler Flue – Is my Boiler on Fire?
In short… no! When you see white smoke coming out of boiler flue, it’s natural to feel concerned. In this blog post, we aim to reassure homeowners and provide valuable insights into the topic of white smoke from boiler flues.
First and foremost, it’s essential to emphasise that the presence of white smoke is typically a result of condensation, especially in colder weather conditions. Modern condensing boilers, designed to be more energy-efficient, recover heat that would otherwise be wasted. As a result, the flue gases emitted are cooler, leading to the formation of a visible water vapour plume.
It’s crucial to note that regulations and guidelines, such as the Gas Safety Regulations and Building Regulations Approved Document J, ensure that installations are carried out by qualified professionals who adhere to safety standards. These regulations also specify minimum separation distances for flues, ensuring the safe dispersal of combustion products.
In this blog post, we will delve deeper into the causes and implications of white smoke from boiler flues, address concerns regarding its impact on health and neighbouring properties, and provide useful tips for mitigating any potential nuisances. By gaining a comprehensive understanding of this phenomenon, you can make informed decisions and ensure peace of mind when it comes to your boiler’s operation.
White smoke coming out of boiler flue is normal for condensing boilers
In compliance with existing Building Regulations, all newly installed boilers must be of the condensing type, ensuring high efficiency. These advanced boilers function by capturing and utilising a significant portion of the waste heat that would otherwise be released into the atmosphere from a conventional non-condensing boiler’s flue. During the condensing process, the flue gases surrender their “latent heat,” which is recovered by the boiler’s heat exchanger and employed to preheat the returning water. Consequently, the temperature of the gases emitted by a condensing boiler’s flue is typically around 50-60°C, whereas it ranges from 120-180°C in a standard non-condensing boiler.
Additionally, the condensing boiler generates a certain amount of water or “condensate.” Due to its larger and more efficient heat exchanger, a condensing boiler consistently exhibits superior operational efficiency compared to a traditional non-condensing boiler.
White smoke coming out of boiler flue is called ‘Plume’
Due to the lower temperature of the flue gases exiting a condensing boiler, a visible mist or water vapour plume often forms around the flue terminal – this is the white smoke coming out of boiler flue. This occurs when the gases come into contact with the atmosphere and undergo condensation, especially in colder weather conditions. This phenomenon has become more prevalent due to the growing popularity of condensing boilers and the higher concentration of housing in certain areas. The presence of the plume can give rise to complaints of inconvenience, particularly when it consistently blows across neighbouring windows, doors, and frequently traversed pathways during the winter season.
According to the Gas Safety (Installation and Use) Regulations, gas fittings and appliances must only be installed by competent individuals who are registered with the Gas Safe Register, which we at Synergi SW are.
Building Regulations Approved Document J provides guidelines for the minimum distances that flues should be from certain openings. Here is a brief summary of the main requirements:
Flue outlets should be located externally to allow for the dispersal of combustion products and intake of air for balanced flues.
- From a surface or boundary facing the terminal = 600mm.
- Below/above an opening = 300mm.
- Horizontal to an opening = 300-600mm (depending on the appliance’s kW rating).
- From an internal or external corner, or to a boundary alongside the terminal = 200-600mm (depending on the type of flue). Please note that these distances apply to gas appliances. Distances for oil appliances are generally 600mm for a boundary facing the terminal.
The Office of the Deputy Prime Minister’s guide on the condensing boiler installation assessment procedure for dwellings, from April 2005, provides additional information on flues. Here are its key points:
- Flue gases discharged from the flue are cooler and less buoyant.
- Flue terminal position must comply with Building Regulations Approved Document J.
Wall terminals should be at least 2.5 meters away from a facing wall, fence, building, or property boundary (600mm according to Building Regulations).
British Standard BS5440-1 “recommends” that condensing boilers should not be placed in locations where the plume is likely to cause a nuisance.
A Building Technical Report (14/2005) published in February 2006, on behalf of the Office of the Deputy Prime Minister, titled “Location of flues to prevent ingress of gas and oil firing flue gases under all weather conditions,” revealed the following findings:
- Most modern gas fixed boilers emit Nitrogen Oxide at levels around 60ppm (which can be an irritant and worsen asthma) and Carbon Monoxide below 50ppm. At a separation distance of 300mm, these levels would have dissipated to acceptable levels.
- Flue gases tend to accumulate under overhanging features like soffits and car ports.
- The concentration of gases on boundaries is 0.5% of the discharge value, resulting in plume dispersion.
- Trials indicate that the separation distances specified in Building Regulations are generally sufficient and do not require further revision.
- The plume disperses rapidly in average wind speeds.
- There is a higher risk if there is a light wind and the flue is positioned beneath a window.
- Fanned flues assist in faster dilution of flue gases compared to natural draught flues.
Therefore, if installed in compliance with Building Regulations, the plume is unlikely to pose a health risk to the public.
So when should I be concerned?
When it comes to your boiler or gas appliances, safety should always be a top priority. While the presence of white smoke coming out of boiler flue may initially cause concern, there are certain situations that warrant immediate attention and should not be taken lightly. Here are some indicators that you should pay close attention to and seek professional assistance:
- Unusual or Persistent White Smoke: While a visible plume of white vapour is normal during colder weather, excessive or persistent white smoke could indicate a problem with your boiler. If you notice a sudden increase in the volume or density of the smoke, it is advisable to contact us in this instance.
- Discoloured or Smelly Smoke: If the white smoke has a different colour, such as yellow or black, or if it emits a strong odour, it may indicate a combustion problem. Discolouration or unusual smells can be signs of incomplete combustion, which can lead to the release of harmful gases like carbon monoxide. In such cases, it’s crucial to stop using the appliance immediately, ventilate the area, and seek professional assistance without delay.
- Malfunctioning or Erratic Boiler Behaviour: Pay attention to any irregularities in your boiler’s operation. If you experience frequent breakdowns, unusual noises, irregular flame patterns, or inconsistent heating, it’s essential to have your boiler inspected. These issues may indicate underlying problems that could compromise both safety and efficiency.
- Gas Leaks: If you detect the smell of gas, it is a serious cause for concern. Gas leaks can be dangerous and require immediate action. In such cases, ensure you follow safety procedures: evacuate the premises, avoid using electrical switches or open flames, and contact the gas emergency helpline – 0800 111 999.
Remember, when it comes to the safety of your boiler and gas appliances, regular maintenance, timely inspections, and addressing any concerns promptly can help ensure the safe and efficient operation of your heating system.
If you are still worried about white smoke coming out of boiler flue, or for any other concerns contact us or call 01404 234363.